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European Union legislation

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Articles 10, 13, 17, 19
Treaty on European Union. Preamble, Article 6

 Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union
Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. Preamble, articles 10, 14, 21 et 22.

 Secondary law
See under General overview

 Case law of the ECJ
Judgement of 27 October 1976 - Vivien Prais v Council

Competition for the recruitment of European officials. Candidate prevented from taking part in the competition on the grounds of religious beliefs

    *Judgement of 5 September 2012 - Bundesrepublik Deutschland v. Y. and Z. (joined cases C-71/11 and C-99/11) - Press release

    In this judgment, the Court clarified the extent to which infringements of religious freedom can constitute persecution within the meaning of Article 9 of Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third-country nationals or stateless persons as refugees (for more details, see Current Debates 5 Sept. 2012).

    *Judgement of 14 March 2017 Samira Achbita, Centrum voor gelijkheid van kansen en voor racismebestrijding v. G4S Secure Solutions NV and Asma Bougnaoui and Association de défense des droits de l’homme (ADDH) v. Micropole SA (cases C-157/15 andC-188/15) - Press release

    Ban on Islamic headscarf at work and principle of non-discrimination

    *Judgement of 27 June 2017 Congregación de Escuelas Pías Provincia Betania v. Ayuntamiento de Getafe (caseC-74/16) - Press release

    Tax exemption for the Catholic Church may constitute illegal State aid

    *Judgement of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 11 September 2018 IR v. JQ (case C-68/17)

    Dismissal by a Catholic company of a worker who remarried after a divorce

    *Judgement of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 22 January 2019 Cresco Investigation GmbH v. Markus Achatzi (case C-193/17)

    Legislation granting a public holiday to certain workers belonging to a religion and the principle of non-discrimination

    * Judgement of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 15 July 2021 IX c/ WABE eV and MH Müller Handels GmbH v. MJ (joined cases C-804/18 and C-341/19)

    Ban on the wearing of (conspicuous) religious symbols in the workplace and the principle of non-discrimination

 EU Guidelines on the promotion and protection of freedom of religion or belief (pdf)

D 5 October 2021    AFrançoise Curtit ARomain Mertens

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