Catholics in England are no more than 9 percent of the population, but the Catholic attendance at mass on a typical Sunday is – at around one million – slightly higher than the number of Anglicans in church at the same time. Although some English Catholics are descended from ‘recusants’ – families who maintained their allegiance to Rome after the Church of England split from its control – the majority descend from Irish immigrants who came to find work in Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. Other Christian denominations in England include the Methodist, Baptist, United Reformed, Orthodox, and Pentecostal churches, and also groups such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, Salvation Army, Seventh-Day Adventists, Quakers, and Unitarians. In recent years there has been substantial growth in independent ‘house churches’ and community churches.
Scotland has a substantial Catholic minority, at 14 percent (10 percent in 2010). No other denomination or religion apart from the Church of Scotland and the Scottish Episcopal Church (mentioned above) accounts for more than 1 percent of the total.
Wales has traditionally been Nonconformist (with chapels generally of a Calvinist hue).
In Northern Ireland a Protestant (mainly presbyterian) majority and a Catholic minority have tended to be identified with opposing sides in the political conflict over the future of the province.
updated by Ingrid Storm