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Une République constitutionnellement laïque

By virtue of its Constitution, Turkey has been a secular State since 1937. This concept of secularism is however different from that which has been practiced in France since 1905 in that since 1924, Turkey has made efforts to incorporate the Sunni Muslim clergy into the civil service. This is essentially to control religious activities through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığ (religious affairs directorate) which is under the direct authority of the Prime Minister’s office. It was during this same era in 1925, that one of the particularities of Islam in Turkey was forbidden – all the Sufi brotherhoods and mausoleums were shut down. They remained closed until the 1950’s when they began to be accepted. The Alevis, with a population of between 10 - 15 million, have no legal status nor are they represented within the Diyanet.

Since the Treaty of Lausanne of 23 July 1923, non-muslim Turkish nationals have specific rights in the area of religion and language. Following a strict intepretation of Articles 37 to 44 of the Treaty, these rights may be enjoyed only by three minority groups namely the Greek Orthodox, the Armenian Orthodox and Jews.

8 octobre 2012